China is located in East Asia and borders the western part of the Pacific Ocean. It has a land area of more than 9.6 million square kilometers, and a mainland coastline of more than 18,000 kilometers. Its water area, including inland sea and marginal sea, is over 4.7 million square kilometers, in which there are more than 7,600 islands of every size. Among them, the island of Taiwan is the largest, with an area of 35,798 square kilometers. China borders 14 countries and is adjacent to 8 island countries on the sea. By provincial administrative division, China has 4 municipalities, 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 2 special administrative regions. Its capital is Beijing. There are 56 ethnic groups in China, which is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-dialect and multi-text country. The common language is Mandarin and standard Chinese characters. The official website of the Chinese government.
China has basically formed its own special education development pattern, with special education schools as the backbone, regular classes or special classes in ordinary schools as the main form, and sending teachers to families, homeschooling and community education as a supplement. There are 2,852 higher education institutions in China, among which 2,560 are regular colleges and universities, and 292 are adult colleges and universities. In higher academic education, there are 326,700 PhD students, 1,584,700 postgraduates, 15,766,800 undergraduates, 10,486,100 regular junior college students and 6,359,400 adult college and adult junior college students. Among the teachers of regular colleges and universities in China, the full-time teachers in colleges and universities total 1,573,000, of which 68.4% has master’s degree[l1] and 41.9% senior professional titles. China’s higher education institutions have assigned 44,200 students and received 37,600 foreign students for international academic exchanges and cooperative researches which have attendees as many as 163,900. China has held 2,291 international academic conferences, with 93,500 academic papers discussed and 18,700 invited lectures given.
Improving the quality of education in China in an all-round way and making significant progress in education modernization are the main goals of China’s educational development in the future. The main tasks include strengthening students’ social responsibility, innovation, entrepreneurship and hands-on ability; encouraging the development of universal pre-schooling; promoting the balanced development of compulsory education; universalizing high school education; speeding up the development of modern vocational education; transforming the qualified undergraduate institutions into application-oriented colleges and universities; adopting a balanced approach in terms of building world-class universities and disciplines; improving the ability of colleges and universities in teaching and innovation; speeding up the building of a learning society; and making great efforts in promoting educational equality. The supplementary measures to achieve the main objectives include strengthening the training of teachers, deepening the reform of the examination and enrollment system, improving the education investment mechanism, promoting and regulating the development of private education, promoting education informatization, strengthening international cooperation and exchanges in education, and deepening the innovation and entrepreneurship-oriented educational reform.
Source: China Profile, Overview of China’s Educational Development by Department of International Cooperation and Exchanges, Ministry of Education, People’s Republic of China.